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This made Lebanon the first Arab country to declassify homosexuality as a "disease". On 28 Januarya court in the municipality of Jdeideh ruled out a case against a transgender woman accused of having an "unnatural" sexual relationship with a man. In Januarya Lebanese judge challenged the legal basis of the arrest of men for same-sex conduct.

In his ruling, Judge Maalouf referred to a penal code provision protecting freedom of expression, Articlewhich states that "an act undertaken in exercise of a right without abuse shall not be regarded as an offense.

Despite these rulings, Article of the Penal Code still stands. Georges Azzi, executive director of the Arab Foundation for Freedoms and Equalitytold the Washington Blade in "Homosexuality is technically illegal in Wanderin - Burl Ives - Ballads, however the new generation of judges are less likely to apply the law and the police forces will not reinforce it.

According to a report co-produced with Helem, the stated reason for the raid was the suspected "presence of homosexual individuals". In Marchthe Kataeb Partya minor Christian party, expressed support for the decriminalisation of homosexuality and the repeal of Article Local LGBT activists welcomed the support, stating that this was the first time a political party in Parliament had endorsed their cause.

In Julythe Penal Appeal Court of Mount Lebanon upheld a lower court ruling which acquitted nine people prosecuted over being gay. The lower court held that homosexuality was "a practice of their fundamental rights".

The Appeal Court agreed and found that consensual sex between same-sex partners cannot be considered "unnatural" so long as it does not violate morality and ethics, such as "when it is seen or heard by others, or performed in a public place, or involving a minor who must be protected. InMilitary Court Judge Peter Germanos acquitted four military personnel accused of "sodomy" in a landmark ruling, clearing the group of charges of committing sexual acts "contrary to nature" and declaring that sodomy is "not punishable by law".

In Januarythe Court of Appeals of Beirut confirmed the right of a transgender man to change his official papers, granting him access to necessary treatment and Intro/Lebanese Lifestyle - Criminal Justice - Complete Collection 1983-89. Lebanese gay and bisexual men are banned from donating blood. The group focused its efforts on reforming Article of the Criminal Code so that private sex acts between consenting adults would no longer be a crime. In Augusta lesbian NGO named Meem was founded to support lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning women in Lebanon.

The group offers community support, psychological counselling, an activity center, legal support, social events, and the opportunity to work on social change.

The inaugural Beirut Pride was planned for May 21,[30] but LGBT activists were forced to hold a private event due to fear of violence from police and radical Islamists. For a while, only the Kataeb Party endorsed the decriminalisation of homosexuality.

None of the major or minor political parties or factions publicly endorsed any of the goals of the gay rights organizations. InKollouna Wataniwhich ran 66 candidates in the election endorsed the decriminalisation of homosexuality. Dozens of other candidates also called for decriminalization. While there were initial reports of government censorship of LGBT themes, there has been a degree of liberalization in recent years.

The sermons also called on the Government to provide explanations. The following day, Ahmed Fatfat denied charges by Islamist clerics that the Government had approved a gay rights group.

Lebanon is the first Arab country with its own gay periodical, entitled Barra "Out" in Arabic. A trial issue was published in March with two full issues that followed in summer and spring The organization is also called Nasawiya and is a group of activists who are involved in gender justice work. Available No Promise Have I Made - Hüsker Dü - Candy Apple Grey both Youth Church - All Honour and Arabic versions, the book is a collection of 41 true and personal stories from lesbians, bisexuals, queer and questioning women and transgender persons from all over Lebanon.

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This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts. New issue alert. Its inhabitants are Alawites who previously lived under Syrian rule on territory that today is claimed by Lebanon. Israeli presence in the northern half of Ghajar entails a permanent violation of the Blue Line. Israel has committed in principle to withdrawing from the northern portion of the village, but the details of how to do that have eluded all parties.

Inmilitary officers from both sides, with Italian UNIFIL officers present, negotiated a proposal to resolve the issue of Ghajar, and according to participants in the talks they formulated a twenty-seven-point plan. In the Ghajar case, this UNIFIL official said, the Tripartite Process succeeded beyond his expectations, but the preliminary technical agreement reached by the two militaries never achieved buy-in from the Israeli government.

They are waiting for the next war and doing nothing to prevent it. On an issue over which the two sides agree on the fundamental disposition—that the northern portion of the village lies on the Lebanese side of the Blue Line and the southern portion on the Israeli side—a technical resolution reached by the two militaries does not translate into a political process Intro/Lebanese Lifestyle - Criminal Justice - Complete Collection 1983-89 refine and implement the resolution.

The most optimistic reading of this episode is that the belligerents established the baseline for a likely future settlement when and if the macro-political climate shifts.

But in practical terms, if the Tripartite Process cannot shape the political agenda on a comparatively straightforward issue like Ghajar, then it has almost no chance of resolving contentious disputes over the high ground of Shebaa Farms currently occupied by Israel or the gas-rich territorial waters in the Mediterranean claimed by both countries. But even in the aims that are more central to its purpose—such as information sharing for tactical and Meet Me In St.

Louis-Louis - Eubie Blake, Joe Jordan And Charles Thompson - Golden Reunion In Ragt purposes, and in the service of conflict management—UNIFIL has had only imperfect success. In the event of another war, the UNIFIL channel will be better positioned than it was in to communicate between belligerents, which could enable UNIFIL to coordinate civilian evacuations and protect civilians who are trying to stay out of the conflict.

Its ability to do so, however, will be severely limited by its lack of a direct channel to Hezbollah; it will continue to rely on the Lebanese military to pass messages to Hezbollah fighters. Inaccording to UNIFIL officials, it was often difficult to even reach Israeli military officials, for instance to inform them of civilian convoys seeking to evacuate the war zone.

During the conflict, none of the belligerents would officially grant safe passage to any party—whether UNIFIL, humanitarian aid groups, or even fleeing civilians—even when they did accept information about their operations. It is easy to imagine this difficulty being repeated in a future conflict. UNIFIL still has no direct liaison capability with Hezbollah, and its relationship with the Israeli military is limited and politically strained.

None of the parties has established any understanding about protection of civilians in the event of a future war, preferring instead to Waterproof - This Is The Kit - Wriggle Out The Restless fire-and-brimstone predictions about how much they will make the other side suffer in a repeat engagement—which both sides paint in terms of total, catastrophic war.

Domestic tensions shape the conflict-management channel as well. Israeli military officials stationed on the northern border avoid the kind of public alarmism that is often heard from the military and political leadership in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Usually, advance permission from Lebanese military intelligence is required for foreigners to enter the UNIFIL area of operations near the border, and all visitors must show identification.

Escorts from Hezbollah led the visitors past an orchard where uniformed Hezbollah fighters in battle gear and paint posed for photographers, Phentasm - Various - Techno Fusion 2007 Vol.2 weapons including machine guns and rocket launchers.

Intentionally or not, the tour called attention to the ground truth that Hezbollah operates in southern Lebanon with full independence. It might defer to the Lebanese Army or UNIFIL in order to avoid embarrassment or minor mishaps, but it can freely circumvent even the most symbolic of checks. Representatives of the party told journalists that they were closely monitoring Israeli maneuvers on the Blue Line and were preparing countermeasures of their own. Hezbollah does not want to initiate a war with Israel at this time, Intro/Lebanese Lifestyle - Criminal Justice - Complete Collection 1983-89 said, but they were prepared at any moment to respond if Israel were to initiate hostilities.

Corollary to this direct message was an equally important indirect implication, one which is understood by all the regional actors: Hezbollah continues to hold sovereign power of arms and operates without limitation from the government of Lebanon, UNIFIL, or any other force. Hezbollah has greatly increased its military capacity since joining the Intro/Lebanese Lifestyle - Criminal Justice - Complete Collection 1983-89 war as a pivotal combatant in The Lebanese nonstate actor has emerged as the premier urban combat and infantry force on the side of the Syrian government.

It has engaged in wide-scale maneuver warfare, and has engaged in integrated warfare, involving air force support, with professional forces from Iran, Russia, and Syria.

Hezbollah has helped form new militias and has led coordinated assaults with militia support involving groups and fighters from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Syria, and elsewhere.

Several speculate that Hezbollah hopes that future clashes with Israel might be limited to the Golan, rather than taking place on Lebanese territory. With the Syrian war potentially entering a closing phase, from which Hezbollah and the Syrian government will emerge victorious, several analysts have refocused their attention on the latent Israel-Hezbollah conflict. A clash in January suggests the complexity of future escalations.

It struck a convoy in the Golan Heights on January 18,killing seven people. Ten days later, on January 28, Hezbollah claimed Kid Acne - Rap Traffic for an attack from the Lebanese side of the Blue Line on an Israeli convoy in the Shebaa Farms area.

Two Israelis were killed and five wounded. In the brief escalation that followed, a Spanish UN peacekeeper was killed. Both sides refrained from further escalation, and aired their complaints through the Tripartite Process.

Both Hezbollah and Israeli officials made public statements around the time of the incident to the effect that they did not want war, but were ready for it. Israel and Lebanon are formally still at war, and no closer to a permanent cease-fire than they were when UNSCR came into force on August 14, Whereas the Israeli government and military are unitary actors on one side of the Blue Line, the other side has a bedeviling array of potential belligerents with competing interests.

These possible participants include but are not limited to Hezbollah, the Lebanese government, Palestinian factions, the Syrian government, and possibly some Syrian rebel factions, although most Syrian rebels in the Golan have either cooperated with Israel or remained neutral. UNIFIL can call the Lebanese Army to settle a crisis, but then Fa Leszek A Fanak - Karoly Szenassy And His Zigeuner Band - The Gypsy String Band rely on the Lebanese Army, itself strained by pressures stemming from the war in Syria, to make effective contact with other players.

Nevertheless, Chehaitli and others who see the utility in the channel provided by the Tripartite Process believe that this unique forum for active belligerents offers unprecedented opportunity to negotiate. When we say no, we mean no. When we say yes, we mean yes. They speak frankly. The UNIFIL model may be a promising approach for conflicts between belligerents with strained or nonexistent diplomatic relations, but it is a model for managing conflict and avoiding unintended escalations, not for resolving conflict and reversing escalations that are intentional or are based on mistrust and miscalculation.

This conflict-management paradigm should invite low expectations. But any mistake could trigger a war. UNIFIL, by mandate, does not actively search for Hezbollah or other factional weapons and therefore is not an active disarming force.

It hails ships, but the Lebanese Navy searches them. It relays reports of Hezbollah activity, but the Lebanese Army, a partner to Hezbollah, conducts searches for weapons. To further complicate matters, the Lebanese Army has had to redeploy its forces elsewhere to deal with violence and Untitled - Various - Infra-red Healing borders stemming from the war in Syria.

All of these scenarios factor into a potential Hezbollah-Israel conflict inwith Hezbollah armed and trained to a greater extent than ever before, Israel openly discussing a destructive war as a way to contain Hezbollah, and both parties telling interlocutors that they would prefer to avoid war but believe that the other side is courting conflict.

Unless a government or nonstate actor has openly and expressly deputized a military channel to negotiate Intro/Lebanese Lifestyle - Criminal Justice - Complete Collection 1983-89 political resolution, there is no evidence that technical talks will prompt a political dialogue—simply because some participants hope for it to do so—much less a resolution.

Certainly, evidence suggests that dialogue of any kind is preferable to its absence. Dialogue allows belligerents to learn more about each other and dispel false assumptions, and serves as a forum to deescalate unwanted tensions. In some instances, a purely technical or process-oriented forum can create a constituency for political resolution that in turn lobbies decision-makers to change their policies.

Dialogue spaces can also generate unconventional proposed solutions to policy problems that then become available to decision-makers should they be inclined to consider them. Still, a dialogue process or deconfliction forum does not possess any power to compel decision-makers to change their positions or even reframe the problem.

A technical channel cannot create a new political climate. The belligerents have mutually exclusive interests that inherently conflict. The channel connecting the Israeli military to the Lebanese military, and offline, the Lebanese military to Hezbollah, has not brought Hezbollah any closer to political relations or direct discourse with the powers that consider it a terrorist group. All the key political issues dividing Lebanon and Israel and Hezbollah and Israel remain.

Nor has the UNIFIL channel made any significant steps toward resolving even the tactical issues that engendered it in the first place—first and foremost, the need for a permanent cease-fire. The UNIFIL case suggests that CBMs and communications channels, as important as they can be for managing conflict, should not be expected to resolve it nor to substitute for political engagement. This report has not been an exploration of peacekeeping modalities, but rather a case study of a specific channel, designed more for dialogue than negotiation, that has emerged between two combatants over more than a decade.

More broadly it has raised doubts about whether limited tactical conflict-management measures can translate into building confidence or even deeper strategic or political rapprochements. The Tripartite Process has been far more successful than Hezbollah, and perhaps the Israeli military, would have liked. At the same time, however, the significance of this channel must not be overstated.

Indirect dialogue between standing combatants has been a tool of conflict management, not of conflict resolution. It functions like a red phone, allowing the combatants to communicate and deescalate, avoiding unwanted conflict.


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9 Comments

  1. Sharg   Niramar
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